The first public beta of PureBasic 64bit is out today, so the quick ones of you will soon start porting their projects to it. Here are a few tips from our own experience of porting the PureBasic tools to x64:
1) Port your project first to 4.30 x86 and fully test it there before moving on
The 4.30 update introduces a number of incompatible changes (many because of the x64 introduction) which are not all visible as compiler errors when used the old way. So instead of jumping directly to the x64 version and thinking about wrong variable sizes etc, better first make sure the crashes you get are not caused by one of these changes and are totally unrelated to the fact that your program is a 64bit one now. If you plan to release both a 32bit and 64bit version of your program, this is a logical first step anyway.
The most important change in this respect is probably the Read command. To avoid problems with different variable sizes on x86 and x64 with Read (which could lead to hard to find bugs), we decided to change the command to not get its type from the variable but rather like Procedure and others from a type postfix. This way you can match the Read type with the type in the DataSection, independent from the type of the variable you read the data into (you just cannot read a float into an integer type directly, but reading a byte into a quad works for example). Unfortunately, this change means that a 4.20 program which does “Read a.b” will now read an integer (4/8 bytes) as that is the default type if no postfix is specified. So our decision was to have this problem now once, or for all eternity when developing a program in both 32bit and 64bit. We decided to go with the former. The best and most foolproof way to deal with this is just to do a “Find in Files” on all your code for the Read command and adding a postfix for everyone of them.
Another source for a possibly hard to locate error is the change in LinkedList commands. They now return the element pointer, and no longer the list header pointer. So if you used the returnvalue of AddElement() and the like, you should check them all and make the needed changes.
Less problematic (because easily visible) changes are the ComboBoxGadget() height parameter, and the removal of the ButtonImageGadget() backward compatibility (you now need SetGadgetAttribute() to change the image). All other incompatible changes should raise compiler errors or warnings, so these are easy to spot.
Once all this is dealt with and your program runs fine with 4.30 x86, its time to dive into x64 programming…
2) .l is evil… very, very, very evil!
Many people have the habit of appending .l to every variable, even though this has been the default type all the time. Well, now is the time to stop that practice. Not only will the speed be worse using a too small type on x64, you also need to constantly worry what you store in the variable, as many things need 8 bytes for storage on x64 (pointers, handles, #PB_Any values, etc). Do not try to get guided by the urge to “save memory” here. 64bit systems have a ton of memory, and for normal variables this is really no argument.
From now on, you should treat the long type as you treated words and bytes so far. Use them only when really needed inside structures, or for Arrays/Lists where memory concerns really become an issue. For every normal variable just leave out the type (which will default to .i), or if you really cannot shake the habit, use .i instead. Just do this consistently, even for counter variables and the like. This will save you a ton of trouble, trust me. Truncated pointers are the worst kind of bug to try to track down.
Another good habit is to simply use a real *Pointer instead of just an integer variable whenever a pointer is stored. This is no requirement, as the .i type will work just as well. But in the long term this increases readability of the code in my opinion.
3) Working directly with memory – keep the pointer size in mind
When working with raw memory, we all probably used “*Pointer + 4” at one point to skip a pointer or long value. You now need to keep in mind to us 8 here for 64bit mode. Using any fixed numbers is discouraged here. Either use the SizeOf() compiler function, or define yourself a nice #PointerSize constant to make this very transparent.
4) API stuff
The API is quite transparent between the 32bit and 64bit versions. We updated all API structure definitions to have the correct types, so most API code should work on x64 out of the box.
Some things need to be considered though:
- A number of API types also switch sizes, such as HANDLE, LONG_PTR etc. However, a number of types do not change size, such as DWORD, LONG, etc. For “in”-Parameters that are passed byvalue to a function, this is not a real problem, but if you need to pass a pointer to the variable to receive some data you need to check which type is needed.
- Do NOT use Get/SetWindowLong_() for subclassing anymore. These remain 32bit even on x64. Use Get/SetWindowLongPtr_() instead, which works correctly everywhere. There is really no need to use SetWindowLong_() over SetWindowLongPtr_() actually, so best do a search and replace and replace all of them right away.
- If you happen to use some API structure that is not predefined by PB, be careful about the padding. There is a lot more padding involved in the x64 structures, and the padding behavior is a bit complex to be explained quickly. If possible, just check the PB structure size against the output of a C compiler like VC8 (the 64bit compiler is provided with the Windows SDK) or ask on the Forum if you are unsure about the makeup of the structure.
There is not much more too it. Calling the PB functions is straight forward on x64, as long as you do not use a too small type to store the return values (#PB_Any etc).
If you use ASM code, the x64 fasm commands can be used on the x64 version without trouble. The #PB_Compiler_Processor constant is a good help here to have separate CompilerIf sections of code for this.
All in all, the x64 port of the PB Programs like the IDE was much easier than we expected. If you get the variable types right, its pretty much done. Now good luck with your x64 ports.